Ag Waste
Agricultural Waste

Anaerobic digester
A device for optimizing the anaerobic digestion of biomass and/or animal manure, often used to recover biogas for energy production. Commercial digester types include complete mix, continuous flow (horizontal or vertical plug-flow, multiple-tank, and single tank) and covered lagoon.

Anaerobic Digestion
A naturally occurring biological process in which organic material is broken down by bacteria in a low-oxygen environment resulting in the generation of methane gas and carbon dioxide as its two primary products.

Technically, any biomass derived substance used for energy (heat, power, or motive). The term ‘biofuel’ usually is used to describe liquid transportation fuels derived from biomass.

Biobutenol refers to butanol that has been produced from biomass. Biobutenol is produced by a microbial fermentation, similar to ethanol and can be made from the same range of sugar, starch or cellulosic feedstocks.

A biodigester is like a mechanical stomach. It is fed with organic material, which is broken down (decomposed) by micro-organisms (bacteria) is an oxygen-free (anaerobic) environment to produce a renewable energy called biogas (methane and carbon dioxide) and other material that is mainly used as fertilizer.

A naturally occurring gas formed as a by-product of the breakdown of organic waste materials in a low-oxygen (e.g., anaerobic) environment. Biogas is composed primarily of methane (typically 55% – 70% by volume) and carbon dioxide (typically 30% – 45%). Biogas may also include smaller amounts of hydrogen sulfide (typically 50 – 2000 parts per million [ppm]), water vapor (saturated), oxygen, and various trace hydrocarbons. Due to its lower methane content (and therefore lower heating value) compared to natural gas, biogas use is generally limited to enginegenerator sets and boilers adapted to combust biogas as fuel. Biogas includes landfill gas, digester gas (from wastewater treatment plants) and biogas from the decomposition of animal waste or food processing waste. As used by this Order, the word biogas usually refers to biogas created by the anaerobic digestion of animal manure and co-digestion materials.

Biomass is any organic matter that is available on a renewable or recurring basis, including agricultural crops and trees, wood and wood wastes and residues, plants (including aquatic plants), grasses, residues, fibers, and animal wastes, municipal wastes, and other waste materials.

Catalytic Conversion of Syngas to Liquids (FT)
Material Solid Waste Processing > Steam Reforming Gasification System Converts MSW to Synthesis Gas > to Diesel & Jet Fuel

Co-digestion is the simultaneous digestion of a mixture of manure and one or more feedstocks to increase the production of biogas. The expression co-digestion is applied independently to the ratio of the respective substrates.

Any solid or semi-solid residual of the dairy digestion or co-digestion process that has not been confirmed through chemical analysis to meet the criteria required to be defined as a soil amendment.

Vonnie Estes, Jim Lane, Michele Rubino, Paul Bryan.

Drop in fuels
Renewable Hydrocarob Biofuels (also called “green” hydrocarbons, biohydrocarbons, drop-in biofuels and sustainable or advanced hydrocarbon biofuels) are fuels produced from biomass sources through a variety of biological and thermochemical processes.

Farm to Fly
Biogas conversion to Jet Fuel.
Department of Agriculture meets the Department of Defense

The principal input for the digestion or co-digestion process (e.g., manure).

Hydrothermal Liquefaction
HTL is a thermal depolymerization process used to convert wet biomass into crude-like oil and sometimes referred to as bio-oil or bio crude under moderate temperature and high pressure.

Conditions in a biological reactor where temperatures are around 95° F (35° C).

Methane is the main component of natural gas and biogas. It is a natural hydrocarbon consisting of one carbon atom and four hydrogen atoms (CH4). The heat content of methane is approximately 1,000 Btu/scf (standard cubic feet). Methane is a greenhouse gas with 21 times the global warming potential of carbon dioxide on a weight basis.

Micro Organism
Microorganisms are very diverse and include all bacterial, archaen (domain of single-celled microorganisms) and most of the protozoan species on the planet.
This group also contains some species of fungi, algae and certain animals, such as rotifers.

Nerd Biodiesel
DIY – Backyard bio-diesel. A diesel fuel produced from plant oils or animal fats. It is commonly sold blended with diesel derived from petroleum.
Common blends include ‘B2” (5% biodiesel), “B10” (10% biodiesel) and “B100” (100% biodiesel)
Microbial App Store
Drop in microbial bugs that convert the end product.

RINS (Renewable Information Number)
EPA uses the term RIN for each physical gallon of renewable fuel produced in or imported into the United States.

Available now

Scrubbing Cleaning
Emission gases from a chemical reactor, generally with sprays of solutions that will absorb gases.

Conditions in a biological reactor where temperatures are around 130° F (55° C) or higher.

Waste 2 Energy

Waste Examples
manure, leachate, digester solids (solids produced by the digestion process), gas scrubber waste (produced during the cleaning of the biogas), dairy, dairy digester or co-digester process wastewater and any water, precipitation or rainfall runoff, that contacts raw materials, digester feedstocks, products, or byproducts such as manure, compost piles, feed, silage, animal bedding, or soil amendments.